Advancing the Science

Mayo Clinic Medical Science Blog – an eclectic collection of research- and research education-related stories: feature stories, mini news bites, learning opportunities, profiles and more from Mayo Clinic.

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Thu, May 7 6:00am · Student-led interest group helps to build the future regenerative medicine workforce

Medical students, Jake Besch-Stokes, Christian Rosenow, Steven Herber and Tyler Jarvis

Educating the next-generation of regenerative physician-scientists is a strategic priority of the Mayo Clinic Center for Regenerative Medicine. And, as the field advances beyond traditional management of symptoms to addressing the underlying cause of disease through curative solutions, medical education must evolve to capitalize on this ongoing evolution. At Mayo Clinic, an interest group formed by medical students is sharing new knowledge in regenerative medicine beyond the classroom.

At the recent World Stem Cell Summit, four medical students from the Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine in Arizona showcased their research. The students presented five Mayo Clinic Center for Regenerative Medicine posters to an international audience that included more than 2,000 physicians, scientists and bio-industry professionals. 

“This educational approach highlights the importance of learner-initiated, patient-focused education, especially in a constantly evolving field like regenerative medicine,” says Saranya Wyles, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor at Mayo Clinic and a course director for the Regenerative Medicine and Surgery curriculum. “This interest group is inspiring other students to get increasingly involved in regenerative sciences equipped with peer-developed education tools to engage the next generation.”

Mayo Clinic offers curricula in regenerative sciences across all five of its schools within the educational shield and is pioneering a patient-centered medical school selective in regenerative medicine and surgeries. The medical students who presented at the World Stem Cell Summit emerged from that selective so inspired that they have formed a regenerative medicine interest group to educate their peers on topics in regenerative medicine. The medical students, Steven Herber and Tyler Jarvis, started the group; later recruiting Jake Besch-Stokes, Christian Rosenow and Josh Spegman to serve on the leadership team. Collectively, they are increasing awareness and interest in regenerative medicine and surgery topics.  

Steven Herber at the World Stem Cell Summit

“A group of us attended the Regenerative Medicine and Surgery Selective together in 2019,” says Steven Herber, a medical student at Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine. “It was an experience that left us wanting to bring others together who were interested in regenerative medicine in order to increase exposure of regenerative sciences topics to students and connect students to researchers.”

While the idea of student-led interest groups is not new to the medical school, the group wanted to go beyond the tradition of hosting speakers and organizing educational events. In its first year, the group spearheaded innovative research centered on regenerative medicine education, including the formation of the medical student interest group, early exposure to regenerative science in elementary schools, and the availability of regenerative medicine curricula in medical schools across the United States. They have also built a repository of research mentors in regenerative medicine and made the list available to all students in the school, allowing students easy access to regenerative medicine experts.

Tyler Jarvis at the World Stem Cell Summit

This up and coming group of medical students is also looking to teach the next-generation of young learners. The group recently met with elementary school children in grades 3-6, gauging their ability to understand current fundamental concepts of regeneration and the body’s building blocks that allow wound healing and repair after injury.

“We found that the elementary aged students are excited about and able to engage in lessons on stem cell biology and regenerative medicine,” says Jarvis. “Next, we will work with regenerative medicine experts at Mayo Clinic to further develop age-appropriate curricula in an effort to inspire future scientists and physicians at a young age.”

“We’re committed to training the emerging workforce in regenerative science and technology,” says Richard Hayden, M.D., Center for Regenerative Medicine director of education. “These students are researching the best training and educational tools for regenerative medicine in order to enable future physicians and scientists to better understand and care for patients.”

This story first appeared on the Center for Regenerative Medicine blog.

Thu, Apr 9 6:00am · Improving remyelination for spinal cord injury: Arthur Warrington, Ph.D.

Mayo Clinic researchers are probing potential ways to unleash the human body’s ability to heal neurological disorders like spinal cord injuries or multiple sclerosis. Myelin is the protective covering that surrounds nerve fibers in the brain, optic nerves and spinal cord. Demyelination, or injury to the myelin, slows electrical signals between brain cells, resulting in loss of sensory and motor function. Through funding from Regenerative Medicine Minnesota, Mayo Clinic researcher Arthur Warrington, Ph.D., is investigating the ability of a human antibody to encourage the nervous system to regenerate its own myelin.

“As we age the myelin healing process takes longer, partly due to the aging immune system,” says Dr. Warrington. “We’re taking the concept of regenerative and therapeutic antibodies for multiple sclerosis (MS) and looking at whether that can be translated to rescue spinal cord injuries.”

A unique human antibody, discovered at Mayo Clinic, completed early stage clinical trial in patients with MS without any side effects. Because it was found to be safe in humans, researchers can now design studies for patients across the spectrum of neurological disease where remyelination would be of benefit, such as spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury and stroke.

  This story first appeared on the Center for Regenerative Medicine blog.

Thu, Apr 2 6:00am · From Mayo Clinic patient to first regenerative sciences graduate

Chris Paradise

When Chris Paradise graduates from the Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences in May, it will be yet another important milestone in his lifelong relationship with Mayo Clinic. The one time Mayo patient and child of a Mayo Clinic nurse will be the first student to graduate from the doctoral research training program known as the Regenerative Sciences Training Program (RSTP). It will be a culmination of hard work and dedication, backed by a positive attitude and team approach that is recognized by his fellow students and colleagues.

“I was interested in science and fascinated by how biological systems worked at a young age,” says Paradise. “I was the kid that grew mold for the science fair project and stayed up late into the night building a 3D model of the cell out of candy.”

This inherent interest and his involvement in sports at the high school and college level fueled his fascination with musculoskeletal biology and orthopedics. When Paradise was in high school he injured his shoulder playing football — an injury that would have ended his athletic career. He describes the care he received at Mayo as a turning point in his life, which allowed him to play ball at a college level and sparked a further interest in science and healing.

After receiving his bachelor’s degree from St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minn., Paradise found himself intrigued by how science could be applied to healing human health and disease. He wanted to continue his education where he could make a difference in the lives of patients through research.

In 2017, when Mayo Clinic announced the RSTP, one of the nation’s first doctoral research training programs in regenerative sciences, Paradise knew he had found the perfect opportunity to enhance his education and take advantage of all the resources the Center for Regenerative Medicine has to offer.

“The program was perfectly aligned with my desire to bring knowledge from the lab to patients through regenerative science,” says Paradise. “This was an opportunity to not only broaden my foundational knowledge of stem cell and regenerative biology, but to connect with an outstanding community of students, scientists and physicians leading the way in the field of regenerative medicine.”

Paradise has had a productive start to his research career during his time in graduate school. He credits his laboratory mentors and the collaborative environment of Mayo Clinic for the opportunity to contribute to a wide array of exciting research papers. Chris has contributed to over 20 research articles published in journals such as Nature Biomedical EngineeringStem Cells and Development, and the Journal of Biological Chemistry, in addition to publishing two first-author papers of his own.

He says the comprehensive approach of Mayo Clinic — being able to take an idea or problem to a research lab and subsequently translating a solution into patient care — is the reason he chose to study at Mayo. He landed in the lab of Andre van Wijnen, Ph.D., now his research mentor, where he began as a research trainee. After this full-time experience in a biomedical laboratory, Paradise applied for the Ph.D. Program in biomedical science at Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences to continue his education. Two years after starting in Dr. van Wijnen’s lab, he joined the group as a full-time graduate student to investigate new strategies for bone and cartilage repair. Shortly after, he was accepted into the RSTP.

“Chris has set the bar high for future students,” says Dr. van Wijnen. “Beyond his incredible research achievements that are truly off the charts, he is has been a model citizen of the Mayo Clinic academic community. He was active in further development of coursework as part of the graduate school’s regenerative medicine curriculum, participated in journal clubs, and served as a teaching assistant for several courses on campus.”

Paradise and the team in Dr. van Wijnen’s lab are actively investigating new approaches for musculoskeletal regeneration using adult stem cells and new drugs that may lead to a better understanding of bone regeneration. They’re working to improve the current standard of care in orthopedic repair and restoration of the human joint — bone, cartilage, ligament and tendon.

“Chris’ attitude and work ethic embodies the core values of Mayo Clinic,” says Dr. van Wijnen. “He is always willing to help and is the first to volunteer even if it is outside of his responsibilities — even helping to teach and mentor others in the lab.”

Outside of the lab, Paradise brings another value to his fellow students and colleagues at Mayo Clinic — he grew up just down the road from Rochester in Mantorville, Minn. His mother has been a nurse at Mayo for over 30 years, and he has been a regular patient at Mayo throughout his life. 

“Beyond science, Chris has been the source of local information to those who are new to the community,” says Amel Dudakovic, Ph.D., a senior research associate who has also served as a mentor to Chris during his time in the lab. “On numerous occasions, he has spent his personal time helping others navigate local events and culture.”

Additionally, Paradise gives back to the community through student-led community outreach organizations such as Brainwaves, a group dedicated to teaching local middle and high school students about the brain.

He successfully defended his thesis March 4 in front of a large audience of friends, family, and Mayo Clinic faculty. He will graduate from the Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences on May 17.

The RSTP continues to be a priority for the Center for Regenerative Medicine and the graduate school, as a way to prepare the next generation of scientists to accelerate the discovery, translation and application of cutting-edge regenerative diagnostics and therapeutics.

Mayo Clinic Center for Regenerative Medicine supports over 20 students in the RSTP, which accepts 3-4 students per year and has students on all three Mayo graduate school campuses in Arizona, Florida and Rochester. Students in the program graduate with a doctorate in biomedical sciences with an emphasis in regenerative sciences and their track of choice.

“The sky is the limit at a place like Mayo with the resources we have here as students,” says Paradise. “I have been fortunate to collaborate with leaders in the regenerative medicine field and the orthopedics department on many projects.” He adds that the last six years have been incredibly enjoyable thanks to his friends and colleagues at Mayo Clinic.

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This story first appeared on the Center for Regenerative Medicine blog.

Mon, Mar 23 6:00am · Collaboration brings innovative regenerative therapies to babies with rare heart defect

stock image of electronic lights in shape of hearts

A collaboration bringing together regional centers and advocacy groups to accelerate innovation and discovery is expanding, bringing clinical trials and expertise to more patients with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) across the country. Led by Mayo Clinic’s Todd and Karen Wanek Family Program for HLHS, the collaboration began in 2017 and now has 10 members. Nine are hospitals and one is an advocacy group for patients and families.

HLHS is a rare and complex form of congenital heart disease in which the left side of a child’s heart is severely underdeveloped. Today, standard treatment for people with HLHS includes three staged surgeries that enable the right ventricle to pump blood to the entire body. While many patients are able to live relatively normal lives as a result, there’s often a need for treatment later in life. Approximately half of all patients will still need a heart transplant by age 10. 

“The consortium allows for a decrease in the amount of time from research and discovery to the clinical application of innovative cell-based therapies,” says Tim Nelson, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Todd and Karen Wanek Family Program for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.

The program works with hospitals across the U.S. to develop innovative cell-based research opportunities to transform the lives of people living with HLHS.

Regenerative medicine strategies have the potential to be an additional treatment for the management of critical congenital heart disease. Using stem cells of different types and from various sources — including autologous cells (from the patient’s own body) — regenerative therapies may stimulate cardiac tissue to grow stronger and heal faster after surgery. 

Consortium members include Children’s of AlabamaChildren’s Hospital ColoradoChildren’s Hospital Los AngelesChildren’s MinnesotaThe Children’s Hospital at OU MedicineChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaCincinnati Children’sMayo Clinic, and Ochsner Hospital for Children, as well as the advocacy group Sisters by Heart.

To date, 71 patients have been treated on four regenerative therapy clinical trials sponsored by the program. A Phase IIb study is currently open at six hospitals across the U.S.  During the second of three surgeries to repair the heart, stem cells from the baby’s own umbilical cord blood are injected into the heart muscle to help it grow stronger. New studies are in development to include other single ventricle-dependent heart defects, as well as to use stem cells during other planned surgeries. 

“By entering into this collaboration, we are making it possible for all children with HLHS to be able to participate in groundbreaking cell-based treatments, no matter their location,” says Dr. Nelson.

To learn more, visit the Mayo Clinic’s Todd and Karen Wanek Family Program for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome website.

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The HLHS Program is a highly comprehensive program advancing causes and cures for congenital heart disease, in particular hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The program takes a multifaceted research approach that includes imaging and outcomes, human genetics, and regenerative medicine. The Center for Regenerative Medicine is a champion of regenerative approaches to medical conditions such as those within the HLHS Consortium.

This story first appeared on the Center for Regenerative Medicine blog.

Tue, Mar 17 6:00am · Regenerating missing bacteria for healthier lungs

medical illustration of lungs with both healthy tissue and diseased tissue expanded illustrations

Connection to COVID-19

People with COPD are at a greater risk of contracting COVID-19, and likely to experience much worse cases than people with healthy lungs.

To help alleviate concerns, the COPD Foundation has set up a continuous blog with expert answers to questions related to COPD.

In addition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have published special guidelines for people at risk of serious illness from COVID-19.

Mayo Clinic’s complete set of COVID-19 related news and information

While much of the world – including Mayo Clinic – is focusing on finding solutions to emerging issues around COVID-19, our researchers also are continuing to pursue other questions in health care.

One such research project is not as unrelated as you might think — Mayo researchers are seeking a cause and regenerative approach to treatment for one of the most common and deadly forms of lung disease. For these patients, contracting COVID-19 could be a death sentence.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a group of lung diseases that makes it difficult to breath. It is also known as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. According to the Minnesota Department of Health, COPD is the fifth leading cause of death in Minnesota, and 50% of Minnesotans with COPD are undiagnosed. Through a grant from Regenerative Medicine Minnesota, Mayo Clinic immunologist Veena Taneja, Ph.D., is researching regenerative methods to treat COPD.

The research, currently being done in mice, is looking at the role of smoking as a cause of COPD. Dr. Taneja’s team has developed an expedited model of cigarette smoke-induced COPD in mice that express human immune genes and mimic human immune response.  

“Although initially thought sterile, healthy lungs have diverse bacteria, and individuals who have a history of smoking and have been diagnosed with COPD are missing a bacterium that is typically present in healthy individuals,” says Dr. Taneja. “We’ve been able to isolate and reintroduce the missing human oral bacterium in to the lungs of mice to correct the microbial imbalance in our laboratory.”  

If successful this research could lead to a better understanding of how the human body uses endogenous bacteria that naturally present in the body to heal from within. The treatment could ease symptoms, improve lung function, and stabilize the immune system to decrease inflammation.

“Since we plan to create a balance with the bacteria already residing inside every human, it is anticipated that treatment should not result in major side effects,” adds Dr. Taneja.

Learn more about Dr. Taneja’s research in the video below:

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A version of this story first appeared on the Center for Regenerative Medicine blog.

Fri, Mar 6 6:00am · Off the shelf vessels: A regenerative approach for coronary artery bypass

Growing blood vessels in a lab for human use may sound like a futuristic dream. However, Mayo Clinic researchers are seeking to do just that to advance a regenerative approach to coronary bypass graft surgery. Through a Regenerative Medicine Minnesota grant, a Mayo research team is developing tissue that could grow into a blood vessel to be used in place of a patient’s own blood vessels to complete the heart bypass.

Coronary artery disease, also known as ischemic heart disease or coronary heart disease, is caused by narrowing or blocking of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. Standard of care surgery relies on harvesting a vessel from the patient to create a bridge around the obstructed coronary vessel and restore normal blood flow. This approach, however, increases a patient’s surgical time and can result in increased pain and potential complications.

“Ischemic heart disease affects over 130,000 Minnesotans,” says Leigh Griffiths, Ph.D., MRCVS. “Through our research, we are developing and exploring a safe and effective vessel replacement for use in coronary artery bypass graft procedures to overcome limitations associated with current approaches.”

Using a tissue engineered vessel grown in a lab eliminates the need to take a vessel from the patient’s own leg, arm or chest — that’s one, instead of two surgeries, for the patient.

“Our previous research has developed animal-derived biomaterials that are manipulated to allow patients bodies to accept them as their own.” says Dr. Griffiths. “Importantly, such biomaterials are highly regenerative as they contain coding information that helps body heal. These coding signals guide pro-regenerative responses, which ultimately result in the biomaterial being replaced by the patient’s own tissue.”

As principal investigator of the Cardiovascular Engineering Research Laboratory at Mayo Clinic, Dr. Griffiths leads a team dedicated to improving treatment of cardiovascular disease through discoveries in transplant immunology, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Their ongoing research may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for patients with congenital cardiovascular defects, heart valve disease, aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, heart transplant, peripheral artery disease and coronary artery disease.

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This article was originally published on the Mayo Clinic Center for Regenerative Medicine blog.

Mon, Mar 2 6:00am · Stem cells in space: A new frontier in regenerative medicine training

Rawan Al-Kharboosh stands with her hands on her hips
Rawan Al-Kharboosh

A Mayo Clinic graduate student is looking to the stars as a new way to advance regenerative therapies for cancer. Rawan Al-Kharboosh, a Ph.D. candidate at Mayo Clinic’s Florida campus, is investigating how stromal vascular fraction stem (SVF) cells react in microgravity and if that may be applied to fight the most deadly type of brain cancer — glioblastoma. SVF cells are a type of cells with the potential to regenerate tissue.

Treatment of the glioblastoma has seen little improvement in outcome in the past decades, with a dismal prognosis and a devastating median survival of 14.6 months. Despite vigorous treatment combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, there is nearly a 100% recurrence rate. The microscopic cells left behind after surgery – the ones that are not seen on an MRI – are responsible for its resistance and ultimate relapse.

Al-Kharboosh is enrolled in the neuroscience track of Mayo’s Ph.D. program and is a scholar in the Regenerative Sciences Training Program (RSTP), supported by the Mayo Clinic Center for Regenerative Medicine. The program, led by Jennifer Westendorf, Ph.D., and administered through the Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, is designed to prepare the next generation of researchers and advance regenerative sciences into clinical practice. 

In January, Al-Kharboosh’s research cells were scheduled to rocket on a suborbital flight, in which it reaches the point of weightlessness but remains below the altitude where it can orbit Earth. She will examine how microgravity affects SVF cells derived from human fat (adipose tissue), and if stem cells can be engineered in a way to allow for same-day engineering. The results of her experiment may shed light on whether SVF can be engineered in microgravity and if these cells could be reintroduced to the brain during cancer surgery to promote healing.

“We isolate stromal vascular fraction derived from human fat (adipose) tissue directly from patients in the operating room,” says Al-Kharboosh. “We are exploring the possibility of engineering these cells with nanoparticles to target and combat brain cancer by releasing a therapeutic cargo.”

When returned to the patient, engineered adipose-derived cells act as vehicles to target and combat the cancer cells. Right now, this is done in a laboratory setting with the cells adhering to and growing on a plastic plate. It takes a few hours for the cells to adhere to the plastic and even longer for their growth. Al-Kharboosh was curious to find ways in which the modified cells could be engineered in suspension rather than on a plate.

Engineering cells in suspension avoids laboratory processing, is less expensive, more accessible and explores a platform where “same-day” engineering is possible and could be done by a physician in the operating room while patient is at the bedside.  

Rawan Al-Kharboosh and Dr. Quinones-Hinojosa stand side by side
Rawan Al-Kharboosh and her mentor, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, M.D., the William J. and Charles H. Mayo Professor

“Rawan’s work is extraordinary. In some ways revolutionary,” says Al-Kharboosh’s mentor, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, M.D., a neurosurgeon on Mayo Clinic’s Florida campus. “She is helping to find potential therapies — and maybe one day cures — for patients with cancer and other neurological diseases. It is highly risky, but it also could be highly rewarding.”

Rawan says the students in the Regenerative Sciences Training Program meet during class seminars and journal clubs to discuss their research. They provide input on each other’s work and discuss ways to navigate the discovery, translation and application of regenerative research and therapeutics, and the more difficult topics of regulatory, political and ethical considerations of regenerative medicine and stem cells.

Mayo Clinic Center for Regenerative Medicine supports 17 students in the RSTP program, including Al-Kharboosh. The center selects student who will go on to careers that advance the regenerative sciences field and bring new regenerative therapies to patients. Al-Kharboosh says her dream is to be the CEO of a large biotech company that discovers and develops regenerative products for patients.

Read more about Rawan Al-Kharboosh and her research in Discovery’s Edge.

This story first appeared on the Center for Regenerative Medicine blog.


Thu, Feb 27 6:00am · Evolution of cardiac regeneration

large group of Mayo staff wearing red for heart disease awareness, posed on grass in sunshine
Wearing red for heart disease awareness is one thing all staff can do each year. More specific efforts are underway throughout Mayo Clinic research to find better ways to prevent and treat heart disease.

February is American Heart Month, a time to acknowledge advancements in a new generation of care. This year focus is placed on repairing damaged heart tissue and restoring heart function after a heart attack. The Mayo Clinic Center for Regenerative Medicine is leading research into cardiac regeneration.

Accounting for nearly 20 million of all deaths, heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Currently, there is no way to replace muscle that has died after a heart attack as damage is often irreversible. Mayo Clinic researchers and clinicians are seeking to create innovative and more affordable and accessible cardiac regenerative therapies to restore heart muscle.  

Atta Behfar, M.D., Ph.D.

“Cell therapy has pioneered our ability to drive regenerative medicine forward,” says Atta Behfar, M.D., Ph.D., director, Mayo Clinic Van Cleve Cardiac Regenerative Medicine Program in the Center for Regenerative Medicine. “In order to be impactful in the next decade, cardiac regeneration efforts need to overcome current hurdles through innovation and development of new technologies that are both fiscally and logistically realistic.”

With the clinical experience accumulated in cardiovascular regeneration both at Mayo Clinic and globally, we now know that a tailored approach will likely provide the best outcomes. For a heart attack and stroke, which require urgent care, off-the-shelf cell-independent technologies that can be stored right at the bedside may be most effective. In contrast, for more chronic conditions like heart failure where a sustained regenerative impulse is required, cellular or gene-based therapies may provide a more robust end result. As the regenerative toolkit continues to grow, with new modalities to deliver restoring cues to the heart, so will our aptitude in offering new solutions to patients in need.

Michael Sabbah, M.D.

“Cell-based technologies have historically been poorly compatible with acute syndromes due to the emergent need for care,” says Michael Sabbah, M.D, Mayo Clinic cardiologist and researcher in the Mayo Clinic Van Cleve Cardiac Regenerative Medicine Program. Establishment of a room temperature-stable product that can be left on the shelf in a surgical or procedure room would allow the use of regenerative therapies at the point of care following stent implantation.”

A case in point, established in the Center for Regenerative Medicine, is the use of regenerative vesicles, termed exosomes which are the active ingredient of regeneration. Exosomes are packages of signaling molecules that act as communication links between cells in the regenerative healing process. They are like an envelope with instructions for healing that one cell mails to another. They can modify the immune response and facilitate blood vessel growth. This technological platform is now under active investigation at Mayo Clinic to evaluate its ability to protect the heart against injury in heart attack.

“In the laboratory, employment of exosomes has been successful,” says Dr. Sabbah. “Our goal is to leverage what we have learned to establish new tools to treat patients with acute cardiovascular syndromes, who currently suffer from devastating and long-lasting deficits. By utilizing a cell-independent platform, our ultimate goals is to develop regenerative technologies that may be employed by providers in a broad array of clinical areas, unencumbered by logistical hurdles that are sometimes seen with other regenerative approaches.”

Although the study and use of exosomes has progressed in the lab, researchers acknowledge that this is simply one example of the type of technological advance poised to broaden the scope of cardiac regeneration. Through the optimization of biologics-based science, researchers in the Mayo Clinic Van Cleve Cardiac Regenerative Medicine Program are expected to start clinical testing later this year.

“Cardiac regeneration has historically paved the way forward in establishing novel biologics-based platforms. Our hope is that as new approaches to restore heart function are implemented, they will inspire use of similar principles across medical and surgical specialties,” says Dr. Behfar. “In order to ensure that all patients receive the highest standard of care, we must utilize the discovery process not just as a paradigm to achieve translational successes, but even more importantly as a modality to break socioeconomic divides and improve access to care.”

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This story first appeared on the Center for Regenerative Medicine blog.

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